H.G.Wells is considered by some to be the father of modern science fiction. He was born in Bromley, Kent on September. 21st 1866, the fourth child of a gardener and a lady's maid who had met when both worked at an estate called Up Park. They had been married eleven years when Bertie was born and for those eleven years had tried to make a living out of a crockery shop named Atlas House. It was a living scarcely distinguishable from poverty; they were able to survive only because of Joseph Wells's career as a professional cricket player and the sale of cricket equipment in the shop. But it was the burial ground of their hopes. In such dismal circumstances Bertie came along, unwanted, ignored by his father, who was away from home a great deal, and fussed over by his mother, whose fear of failure reflected the English apprehension that success was only a thin crust separating citizens from the volcano beneath.
In Sarah Wells's early Victorian world the most important thing for her children was "getting on," and getting on meant having a solid trade to which one was apprenticed early. Wells attributed his escape from this life and his mother's plans for him to two broken legs. The first happened to Bertie at the age of seven shortly after his mother proposed that he start helping out in Atlas House. Wells called it "one of the luckiest events of my life" and because of it, he wrote, "I am alive today and writing this autobiography instead of being a worn-out, dismissed and already dead shop assistant." During the weeks he was laid up on the parlor sofa, he was deluged by books brought home by his father and sent to him by neighbors. He grew up under the continual threat of poverty, and at 14, after a very inadequate education supplemented by his inexhaustible love of reading, he was apprenticed to a draper in Windsor. His employer soon dismissed him; and he became assistant to a chemist, then to another draper, and finally, in 1883, an usher at Midhurst Grammar School. Later, Wells won a scholarship and furthered his education at the Normal School of Science in London. It was at the Normal School that Wells came under the wing of the famous biologist Thomas H. Huxley. Wells's "science fiction" (although he never called it such) was clearly influenced by his studies at the Normal School and the interest that he developed in biology.
Perhaps more important than his classwork to his later career were his extracurricular activities. He was a faithful member of the Debating Society, attended meetings of the Fabian Society and listened excitedly to the speeches and debates of some of the great men of his time, and, with some friends, founded the Science Schools Journal. He was the first editor and he wrote several pieces for it that evidenced an early interest and skill in speculation. One was an article on "The Past and Present of the Human Race" (which was revised and published in the Pall Mall Budget in 1893 as "The Man of the Year Million"); in it he imagined a time when distant descendants of mankind would be great brains floating in tubs of nutritive fluids, when humanity would live by chemicals and sunlight alone on a planet where it had destroyed all other plants and animals (cf. John W. Campbell's 1934 story "Twilight"); when humanity's heirs would be driven underground by the cooling of the sun and earth to live in galleries linked to the surface by ventilating shafts (cf. E. M. Forster's 1909 story "The Machine Stops"). He also wrote for the Journal some science-fiction stories, including one about time travel called "The Chronic Argonauts."
In 1894 Lewis Hind, the editor of the Pall Mall Budget suggested that Wells use his knowledge of science to write a series of stories for which he would be paid five guineas each (a guinea was a pound plus a shilling). "The Stolen Bacillus" soon was on the editor's desk and five more followed before the year was over. The big opportunity came, however, when William Ernest Henley, editor of the National Observer (and author of "Invictus"), asked Wells for a series of articles. Wells dug up what he called his "peculiar treasure," "The Chronic Argonauts," and revised it as seven articles that were published in 1894.
Wells exploded into fame with his first major fiction work: The Time Machine in 1895. Soon after the publication of this book, Wells followed with The Island of Dr. Moreau (1895), The Invisible Man (1897), and perhaps his most famous popular work: The War of the Worlds (1898). Over the years Wells became concerned with the fate of human society in a world where technology and scientific study were advancing at a rapid pace. In 1903 he joined the Fabian society and tried, unsuccessfully, to turn it into more than a genteel debating society. He became acquainted with politicians and newspaper publishers, even joining elite discussion groups that included future war ministers and Lord Chancellors, foreign secretaries, and directors of the London School of Economics, as well as Bertrand Russell and Sidney Webb. Wells's later works became less science fiction than social critique. The accuracy of the "science" in Wells's work has often been called into question. It is rumoured that Wells and the French novelist Jules Verne actually criticised each other's writing. Wells's claim was that "Verne couldn't write himself out of a paper sack" and Verne accused Wells of having "scientifically implausible ideas." The science may not be accurate, but the adventure and creativity with which Wells's wrote makes his early science fiction fun and fascinating to read. Well's acknowledged his indebtedness to a number of writers, including Hawthorne, Poe, Kipling, and others, particularly Sterne and Swift, although he rejected comparisons to Verne and never mentioned Flammarion. Ultimately all the material Wells touched, including his own life, became his subject, and he made it his own. His vision of humanity and its problems and its place in the universe sometimes transformed that material into art.
Recuperating at Sandgate from a painful illness Wells was looking ahead and speculating about what would happen in the twentieth century. His scientific prophecies about space travel and moon landings are well remembered, but the first book he completed at Spade house is almost forgotten. Called Anticipations, it began by discussing how the evolution of transport would result in the redistribution of population; " and everybody in 1900 was shirking the necessity for great political reconstruction everywhere". His foresight can be measured by the fact that the century was half over before the jet age arrived, with hundreds of thousands of people being airborne every day and of course the need for "political reconstruction" is Europe's most pressing preoccupation since we have entered the 21st Century. Some fifty years after Wells died, we can look back with awe to the turn of the 20th century 100 years ago when his presence resulted in Sandgate becoming the creative centre of the world's richest literary periods.
He built Spade House with the royalties earned from novels like First Men in the Moon and The War of the Worlds.. H.G Wells actually came to Folkestone via New Romney, where he had consulted Dr. Henry Hick, at a time when he was almost confined to a wheelchair due to his poor health. Suffering from kidney problems he was referred to a London surgeon who removed the offending organ. While recuperating from what the surgeon's believed to be an attack of kidney stones, Wells became godfather to Dr. Hicks new-born daughter and amused himself by writing and illustrating for her a little booklet called " The Adventures of Tommy". When she grew up and needed money for medical training she asked Well's permission to sell the story. A copy can still be found in Folkestone town library.
Sandgate's period as a centre of literature and culture began soon after his recovery at New Romney. He records how his second wife Jane (her name was actually Amy Catherine, but wells did not like that, so he renamed her) put him in a comfortable carriage and drove him to Sandgate. They moved into a furnished house called "Beach Cottage" - so close to the sea that in bad weather the sea broke over the roof. One of Well's drawings, which he called "picshuas", shows Beach Cottage under the sort of assault that was well known down in Sandgate until quite recently, when the beach replenishment programme was successfully put into action.
Beach Cottage can still be found today but it has been renamed "Granville Cottage". Enjoying Sandgate so much, the Wells had their furniture transported down from Worcester Park, Southwest London, and took a lease on "Arnold House" whilst they awaited the construction of Spade House. It was whilst dwelling at this residence and Spade House that Wells wrote "The Sea Lady" and "Anticipations" (The full title being "Anticipations of the Reaction of Mechanical and Scientific progress upon Human life and Thought"). Following this was the so called scandalous "A Modern Utopia". Ann Veronica came forthwith and caused even more scandal. The publishers, Macmillan, would not risk their good name, so issued it under another; and Vicars in their pulpits spurned it, and society began to ignored Wells. It is in what is now a tool shed, that Wells wrote his three most important novels. These were Kipps, a young man who started work at what must have been Plummer Roddis's emporium in Folkestone, The History of Miss Polly, and Tono Bungay, stories which paint a vivid picture of what was seedy old Kent.
Wells brought other famous people to Sandgate; including Sir James Barrie, creator of Peter Pan; G.K. Chesterton, and Henry James. George Bernard Shaw became a lifelong friend, as did Arnold Bennett and Joseph Conrad. Henry James lived and worked in Rye for many years - partly because he could come to Spade House and argue with Wells. Stephen Crane, who wrote The Red Badge of Courage, lived at Brede and was another Spade House regular. Joseph Conrad (real name Yosef Konrad Korzeniowski), who owned a farm at Postling wrote to Wells after reading The Invisible Man saying :" I am always powerfully impressed by your work. Impressed is the word, O Realist of the Fantastic! If you want to know what impresses me it is to see how you contrive to give over humanity to the clutches of the Impossible and yet manage to keep it down (or up) to its humanity, to its flesh, blood, sorrow, folly. That is the achievement". Prior to Conrad's ownership, the farm was occupied by poet Christine Rossetti and artist Walter Crane. Ford Madox Ford, another friend though they later had serious disagreements, called Wells "The Dean of our Profession," and said, "It did not take us long to recognize that there was Genius.
Before leaving Sandgate he became a Borough Magistrate, and attended "boring lunches" at Sir Edward Sassoons' house nearby Sandgate at Shorncliffe Lodge. Among the politicians who bored Wells at Sassoons' house was a young Winston Churchill.
So, in the 20 years from 1890 to 1910, H.G.Wells made Sandgate the hub of the literary world. His ideas, which were to reshape society during the 20th Century, were seeded there.
Dickens came to Folkestone many times. In 1853, he stayed for a few days holiday at the Pavilion Hotel. He was engaged at the time in writing 'A Child's History of England', and the town appears as Pavilionstone in his essay 'Out of Town' from the collection (Reprinted Pieces).
Returning in the summer of 1855 he rented number 3 Albion Villas, "a pleasant little house with the sea below and the scent of thyme sweetening the breezes from the downs". Although working furiously on the beginning of his novel Little Dorrit he found time for "swarming up the face of a gigantic and precipitous cliff" and could be seen many a day "from the British Channel, suspended in mid-air with his trousers very much torn at fifty minutes past 3pm".
Apocalypse Now - based on his novel Heart of Darkness
Born Teodor Józef Konrad Korzeniowski near Berdichev, Poland, Conrad was the son of a Polish noble from whom he acquired a love of literature. However, he was orphaned at the age of 12 and at age 16 left Russian-occupied Poland for Marsaille. For the next few years he served on various ships - French and English - becoming a master mariner and, in 1886, a naturalised British subject. He continued travelling widely, especially in Africa and the east. Although English was his fourth language, it was in English that he chose to write, drawing primarily upon these experiences. His first published work, Almayer's Folly, appeared in 1895. Conrad's subsequent life does not appear to have been easy: he received only a small income from his writing, and neither Conrad nor his wife were well. He died at Bishopsbourne, near Canterbury.
Much of his writing, or at least the setting, was inspired by his life at sea and in foreign parts, in the decade or so from 1885 to 1895, especially his travels on the Congo River and in the Malay archipelago.
"I joined [the ship's company]. It was twenty-two years ago; and I was just twenty. How time passes! It was one of the happiest days of my life. Fancy! Second mate for the first time a really responsible officer! I wouldn't have thrown up my new billet for a fortune. The mate looked me over carefully. He was also an old chap, but of another stamp. He had a Roman nose, a snow-white, long beard, and his name was Mahon, but he insisted that it should be pronounced Mann. He was well connected; yet there was something wrong with his luck, and he had never got on." Youth: A Narrative
Conrad is certainly most loved for his major novels Lord Jim, Nostromo, ... but, during his career, he has also left us with many short stories and a few 'in between' such as Typhoon. Today, we face more competition for our free time, and, perhaps, have less appreciation and patience with the craft of story-telling. These hurdles needn't shut us off from Conrad; his short stories can provide us with an introduction which is fully illustrative of the author's technique and style. Several collections are available; some published by Conrad (or at least authorised by him) and others put together posthumously.
Some of Conrad's titles are:
Almayer's Folly 1895
Tales of Unrest (collection) 1898
Lord Jim 1900
Heart of Darkness 1902 (short story)
Youth: A Narrative and Other Stories (collection) 1902
Typhoon and Other Stories (collection; includes Typhoon and Amy Foster) 1903
The Secret Agent 1907
A Set of Six (collection; includes The Informer) 1908
'Twixt Land and Sea (collection) 1912
Tales of Hearsay (collection) 1925
Born on February 20, 1946 in Ramsgate, Kent
Blethyn has been working in TV and film for 19 years, with parts in shows ranging from Alas Smith and Jones to Mike Leigh's award-winning Secrets & Lies (1996). More recently she starred alongside Michael Caine and Jane Horrocks in Little Voice (1998), headlined as a dope-smoking Cornish widow in Saving Grace (2000) and was part of the much praised female ensemble in Lovely & Amazing (2002)
WHAT YOU PROBABLY DIDN'T KNOW IS...
She is an ambassador for the Prince's Trust charity
TREVOR HOWARD (1916-1988) Born in Cliftonville, Kent, England.
Trevor Howard worked in the theatre for ten years before making his film debut in 1944 in Carol Reed's The Way Ahead. This was followed in 1945 with a role in Anthony Asquith's The Way to the Stars, and with the part for which he is perhaps best remembered, that of the doctor in David Lean's Brief Encounter. British cinema after the war generated a club of typical English men, of which Howard was one, his particular strength being to make English dullness interesting.
His characters were typically restrained, but the restraint covered complex emotions and the typicality was finely nuanced. His success in films like Alberto Cavalcanti's They Made Me a Fugitive (1947), David Lean's The Passionate Friends (1949) and Reed's The Third Man (1949) made him one of the key actors of the post-war period, and he continued to deliver well-judged character parts for the next three decades.
HATTIE JACQUES (1924 - 1980) Sandgate, Kent, England.
Plump character actress who starred in vivid supporting roles from her early twenties. A radio comedienne from 1947, she did not get into her film comedy stride until the 'Carry On' series came along. Later a notable foil for Eric Sykes in his long-running television show. Married to actor John le Mesurier from 1949 to 1965.
PETER CUSHING O.B.E. (1913 -1994) THE GENTLE MAN OF HORROR, Whitstable, Kent.
Peter Cushing was one of the most beloved and important actors for the genres of horror and fantasy films. He began in British Theater before making a name for himself in Hollywood with such films as 'The Man in The Iron Mask' and 'A Chump at Oxford'. Cushing returned to his native England during World War II and soon after became a television star with such hits as 'Nineteen Eighty-Four', 'The Creature' and 'Beau Brummell'.
To his fans however, Mr. Cushing is recognized mostly for his work with Hammer Films. He began to star in many of Hammer's horror and fantasy films starting in the late 1950's, which consequently breathed new life and energy into the nearly forgotten genre of classic horror films. These films gained such favor and popularity with the public, Mr. Cushing was quickly catapulted to international stardom. Such classics included 'The Curse of Frankenstein', 'Abominable Snowman of the Himalayas', 'Horror of Dracula', 'The Mummy', 'Captain Clegg', 'The Revenge of Frankenstein', 'The Evil of Frankenstein', 'Sword of Sherwood Forest', 'Frankenstein Must Be Destroyed', 'Dracula A.D. 1972', 'Frankenstein and the Monster from Hell', 'Legend of the Seven Golden Vampires', plus many more. He also appeared in films for Amicus - Hammer's rival. Some of these classics included 'Dr. Terror's House of Horrors', 'Dr. Who and the Daleks', 'Daleks' Invasion Earth 2150 A.D.', 'I Monster', 'Asylum', and 'Tales from the Crypt'. It has been said that everyday, somewhere in the world, a Peter Cushing film is being shown. These films are still watched today by countless life long fans who grew up watching Peter Cushing, and to the delight of younger viewers discovering for the first time these well made, classic horror films. Mr. Cushing capped off his career in the late 1970's with Star Wars. From then on, he made only a handful of films with Biggles being his last in 1986.
Still very active in retirement, Mr. Cushing wrote two autobiographies, received the O.B.E. ( Officer of the British Empire) in 1989, helped in raising money for cancer research, along with painting, collecting books, and bird watching in his spare time.
Always the professional, Mr. Cushing's final work was the Hammer documentary Flesh and Blood. His contribution and dedication to the films he appeared in will never be equaled. The generous, kind and gentle nature, he showed off-camera to his co-workers and fans is legendary. Peter Cushing truly was The Gentle Man of Horror.
Michael Latham Powell (30 September 1905 – 19 February 1990) was a British film director, born in Bekesbourne, Kent, England who was renowned for his partnership with Emeric Pressburger. Their partnership produced a series of classic British films under the aegis of "The Archers." Powell also helmed a number of films during his film career.
Powell was the second son and younger child of Thomas William Powell, a hop farmer, and Mabel, daughter of Frederick Corbett, of Worcester. Powell was born in Bekesbourne, Kent, and educated at The King's School, Canterbury and then at Dulwich College. He started work at the National Provincial Bank in 1922 but quickly realised he was not cut out to be a banker.
Powell entered the film industry in 1925 through working with director Rex Ingram working at the Victorine Studios in France (the contact with Ingram was made through Powell's father, who owned a hotel in Nice). He first started out as a general studio hand, the proverbial "gofer": sweeping the floor, making coffee, fetching and carrying. Soon he progressed to other work such as stills photography, writing titles (for the silent films) and many other jobs including a few acting roles, usually as comic characters. Powell made his film debut as a "comic English tourist" in Mare Nostrum (1926).
Returning to England in 1928, Powell worked at a diverse series of jobs for various filmmakers including as a stills photographer on Alfred Hitchcock's silent film Champagne (1928). He also signed on in a similar role on Hitchcock's first "talkie", Blackmail (1929). In his autobiography, Powell claims he suggested the ending in the British Museum which was the first of Hitchcock's "monumental" climaxes to his films. Powell and Hitchcock remained friends for the remainder of Hitchcock's life.
After scriptwriting on two productions, Powell entered into a partnership with American producer Jerry Jackson in 1931 to make "quota quickies," Powell began to direct hour-long films needed to satisfy a legal requirement that British cinemas screen a certain quota of British movies. During this period, he developed his directing skills sometimes making up to seven films a year.
Although he had taken on some directing responsibilities in other films. Powell had his first screen credit as a director on Two Crowded Hours (1931), a thriller, considered a modest success at the box office, despite its limited budget. From 1931 to 1936, Powell was the director on 23 films, including the critically received Red Ensign (1934) and The Phantom Light (1935).
By 1939, Powell had been hired as a contract director by Alexander Korda on the strength of The Edge of the World. Korda set him to work on some projects like Burmese Silver that were subsequently cancelled. Nonetheless, Powell was brought in to save a film that was being made as a vehicle for two of Korda's star players, Conrad Veidt and Valerie Hobson. The film was The Spy in Black where Powell first met Emeric Pressburger.
Meeting Emeric Pressburger
The original script of The Spy in Black followed the book quite closely, but was too verbose and did not have a good role for either Veidt or Hobson. Korda called a meeting where he introduced a diminutive man saying, "Well now, I have asked Emeric to read the script, and he has things to say to us."
Powell then went on to record (in A Life in Movies) how:
"Emeric produced a very small piece of rolled-up paper, and addressed the meeting. I listened spellbound. Since talkies took over the movies, I had worked with some good writers, but I had never met anything like this. In the silent days, the top [American] screenwriters were technicians rather than dramatists[, but]... the European cinema remained highly literate and each country, conscious of its separate culture and literature, strove to outdo the other[s]. All this was changed by the talkies. America, with its enormous wealth and enthusiasm and it technical resources, waved the big stick. ... The European film no longer existed[,]... [except for]...the great German film business ... and Dr. Goebbels soon put a stop to that in 1933. But the day that Emeric walked out of his flat, leaving the key in the door to save the stormtroopers the trouble of breaking it down, was the worst day's work that the clever doctor ever did for his country's reputation, as he was soon to find out. As I said, I listened spellbound to this small Hungarian wizard, as Emeric unfolded his notes, until they were at least six inches long. He had stood Storer Clouston's plot on its head and completely restructured the film."
They both soon recognised that although they were total opposites in background and personality, they had a common attitude to film-making and that they could work very well together. After making two more films together (Contraband (1940) and 49th Parallel) with separate credits, the pair decided to form a partnership and to sign their films jointly as "Written, Produced and Directed by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger."
Working together as co-producers, writers and directors in a partnership they dubbed "The Archers", they made 19 feature films, many of which received critical and commercial success. Their best films are still regarded as classics of 20th century British cinema. The BFI 100 list of "the favourite British films of the 20th century" contains five of Powell's films, four with Pressburger.
Although admirers would argue that Powell ought to rank alongside fellow British directors Alfred Hitchcock and David Lean, his career suffered a severe reversal after the release of the controversial psychological thriller film Peeping Tom, made in 1960 as a solo effort. The film was excoriated by British critics, who were offended by its sexual and violent images; Powell was ostracized by the film industry and found it almost impossible to work thereafter. However, his reputation was restored over the years, and by the time of his death, he and Pressburger were recognised as one of the foremost film partnerships of all time - and cited as a key influence by many noted filmmakers such as Martin Scorsese and Francis Ford Coppola.
In 1927 Powell married Gloria Mary Rouger, an American dancer; they were married in France and stayed together for only three weeks. During the 1940s, Powell had love affairs with actresses Deborah Kerr and Kathleen Byron. From 1 July 1943 until her death on 5 July 1983, Powell was married to Frances "Frankie" May Reidy, the daughter of medical practitioner Jerome Reidy; they had two sons: Kevin Michael Powell (b. 1945) and Columba Jerome Reidy Powell (b. 1951). He also lived with actress Pamela Brown for many years until her death from cancer in 1975.
Subsequently, Powell was married to editor Thelma Schoonmaker from 19 May 1984 until his own death from cancer at his home in Avening, Gloucestershire.
For his films with Emeric Pressburger, see Powell and Pressburger and Powell and Pressburger films
Many of his early films are disparagingly referred to as "quota quickies." Not all of them were, and the ones that were are often of a much higher standard than most other quota films. Some of his early films are now missing and are believed lost. But those that have survived often show some very sophisticated techniques and early versions of ideas that were reused, done better, in his later films.
1928: Riviera Revels (co-director)
1930: Caste (uncredited) *
1931: Two Crowded Hours *
1932: His Lordship *
1932: C.O.D. *
1932: Hotel Splendide
1932: The Star Reporter *
1932: The Rasp *
1932: My Friend the King *
1933: Born Lucky *
1934: Something Always Happens
1934: Red Ensign (US title: Strike!)
1934: The Fire Raisers
1935: Some Day (aka Young Nowheres) *
1935: The Price of a Song *
1935: The Phantom Light
1935: The Night of the Party (US title: The Murder Party)
1935: The Love Test
1935: The Girl in the Crowd *
1936: The Man Behind the Mask (reissued as Behind the Mask)
1936: Crown Vs. Stevens (aka Third Time Unlucky)
1936: The Brown Wallet *
1936: Her Last Affaire
Those marked with a * are "Missing, believed lost"
From late 1930s onwards, most of Powell's films were in collaboration with Pressburger; his solo films were:
The Edge of the World (1937)
The Lion Has Wings (1939) RAF documentary footage with some fictional intercuts
The Thief of Bagdad (1940) co-director
An Airman's Letter to His Mother (1941) a 5-minute short
The Sorcerer's Apprentice (1955) a short ballet
Luna de Miel (1959, aka Honeymoon)
Peeping Tom (1960)
The Queen's Guards (1961)
Herzog Blaubarts Burg (1963) aka Bluebeard's Castle
They're a Weird Mob (1966) Pressburger helped on script as Richard Imrie
Age of Consent (1969)
Return to the Edge of the World (1978) for British TV, framing of the original 1937 film
Powell also directed episodes of the TV series The Defenders, Espionage and The Nurses.
Powell was also involved in the following films in a non-directorial role:
The Silver Fleet (1943) - Producer
The End of the River (1947) - Producer
Sebastian (1968) - Producer
Anna Pavlova (1983) - Associate Producer
Books by Michael Powell
1938: 200,000 Feet on Foula. London: Faber & Faber. (The story of the making of The Edge of the World was also reprinted as 200,000 Feet - The Edge of the World in the United States.)
1956: Graf Spee. London: Hodder & Stoughton. (This book contains much information that Powell and Pressburger could not include in their film The Battle of the River Plate.)
1957: Death in the South Atlantic: The Last Voyage of the Graf Spee. New York: Rinehart. (American edition of Graf Spee)
1975: A Waiting Game. London: Joseph. ISBN 0-718-11368-3.
1976: The Last Voyage of the Graf Spee. London: White Lion Publishers. ISBN 0-727-40256-0. (Second British edition of Graf Spee)
1978: (with Emeric Pressburger) The Red Shoes. London: Avon Books. ISBN 0-804-42687-2.
1986: A Life In Movies: An Autobiography. London: Heinemann. ISBN 0-434-59945-X.
1990: Edge of the World. London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-15306-2. (This book is a paperback edition of 200,000 feet on Foula.)
1992: Million Dollar Movie London: Heinemann. ISBN 0-434-59947-6. (This is the second part of Powell's autobiography.)
1994: (with Emeric Pressburger and Ian Christie) The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp. London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-14355-5. (This book includes memos from Churchill and notes showing how the script developed.)
Many of these titles were also published in other countries or republished. The list above deals with initial publications except where the name was changed in a subsequent edition or printing.
1944: Directed Ernest Hemingway's The Fifth Column at the Theatre Royal, Glasgow
1944: Directed Jan de Hartog's Skipper Next To God at the Theatre Royal, Windsor
1951: Directed James Forsyth's Heloise at the Golders Green Theatre, London
Awards, nominations and honours
1943: Oscar nominated for 49th Parallel as Best Picture
1943: Oscar nominated for One of Our Aircraft is Missing for Best Writing, Original Screenplay. Shared with Emeric Pressburger
1948: Won Danish Bodil Award for A Matter of Life and Death as Best European Film. Shared with Emeric Pressburger
1948 Nominated for The Red Shoes for Venice Film Festival Golden Lion. Shared with Emeric Pressburger
1949: Oscar nominated for The Red Shoes as Best Picture. Shared with Emeric Pressburger
1951: Cannes Film Festival nominated for The Tales of Hoffmann for Grand Prize of the Festival. Shared with Emeric Pressburger
1951: Won Silver Berlin Bear from Berlin International Film Festival for The Tales of Hoffmann as Best Musical. Shared with Emeric Pressburger
1957: BAFTA Award nominated for The Battle of the River Plate as Best British Screenplay. Shared with Emeric Pressburger.
1959: Cannes Film Festival nominated for Luna de Miel for Golden Palm.
1978: Awarded Hon DLitt, University of East Anglia
1978: Awarded Hon DLitt, University of Kent
1981: Made fellow of BAFTA
1982: Awarded Career Gold Lion from the Venice Film Festival
1983: Made fellow of the British Film Institute (BFI)
1987: Awarded Hon Doctorate, Royal College of Art
1987: Awarded Akira Kurosawa Award from San Francisco International Film Festival
Cited as a major influence on many film-makers such as Martin Scorsese, Francis Ford Coppola, George A. Romero and Bertrand Tavernier.
The Michael Powell Award for the Best New British Feature was instigated in 1993 at the Edinburgh International Film Festival and is sponsored by the UK Film Council and is "named in homage to one of Britain's most original filmmakers".
Pinewood Studios, where Powell made many of his most notable films, has named a mixing theatre in the post-production department after him: The Powell Theatre. A giant picture of the director covers the door to the theatre, where many well-known films are mixed.
William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who was the first to describe correctly and in exact detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart.
William Harvey was born at home to a prosperous yeoman, Thomas Harvey, of Folkestone, Kent (later a Levant Company merchant), and wife Joane Halke, of Hastingleigh Kent (1555-1556 – 8 November 1605), and educated at The King's School, Canterbury. At 16 he was awarded a medical scholarship (founded by Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, the first such scholarship in England, for which preference was given to a Man of Kent) to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, through which he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1597. John Caius, who refounded the college before Harvey’s time, used to advise his students to seek some part of their medical education abroad: like him, Harvey went on to the University of Padua, Italy (also attended by Copernicus), where he studied under Hieronymus Fabricius, and the Aristotelian philosopher Cesare Cremonini graduating in 1602. He returned to England and married Elizabeth C. Browne, daughter of Lancelot Browne, a prominent London physician. The couple had no children. He practiced as a physician in London, where he had an appointment at St Bartholomew's Hospital (1609–43) and became a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians. After his time at St Bartholomew's he returned to Oxford and became Warden (head of house) of Merton College.
Circulation of the blood
Although Ibn al-Nafis and Michael Servetus had described pulmonary circulation before the seventeenth century, this aspect of the theory circulation was generally unknown in Europe until Harvey rediscovered it nearly a century later. However Harvey's model of the circulatory system was a "conceptual leap that was quite different from Ibn al-Nafis' refinement of the anatomy and bloodflow in the heart and lungs" because it envisions a continuous circulation of the blood throughout the body between the veins and arteries, and not just in the lungs.
Harvey travelled widely in the course of his researches, especially to Italy, where he stayed at the Venerable English College in Rome.
In an image of veins from Harvey's Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in AnimalibusIn Italy he came in contact with Hieronymus Fabricius, his teacher at Padua, who had claimed discovery of 'valves' in veins, but had not discovered the true use of them. The explanation that he had put forward did not satisfy Harvey, and thus it became Harvey's endeavour to explain the true use of these valves, and eventually, the search suggested to him the larger question of the explanation of the motion of blood. Harvey announced his discovery of the circulatory system in 1616 and in 1628 published his work Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals), where, based on scientific methodology, he argued for the idea that blood was pumped around the body by the heart before returning to the heart and being re-circulated in a closed system.
This clashed with the accepted model going back to Galen, who identified venous (dark red) and arterial (brighter and thinner) blood, each with distinct and separate functions. Venous blood was thought to originate in the liver and arterial blood in the heart; the blood flowed from those organs to all parts of the body where it was consumed.
Harvey based most of his conclusions on careful observations recorded during vivisections made of various animals during controlled experiments, being the first person to study biology quantitatively. He did an experiment to see how much blood would pass through the heart each day. In this experiment he used estimates of the capacity of the heart, how much blood is expelled each pump of the heart, and the amount of times the heart beats in a half an hour. All of these estimates were purposefully low, so that people could see the vast amount of blood Galen's theory required the liver to produce. He estimated that the capacity of the heart was 1.5 ounces, and that every time the heart pumps, 1/8 of that blood is expelled. This led to Harvey's estimate that about 1/6 of an ounce of blood went through the heart every time it pumped. The next estimate he used was that the heart beats 1000 times every half an hour, which gave 10 pounds 6 ounces of blood in a half an hour, and when this number was multiplied by 48 half hours in a day he realized that the liver would have to produce 540 pounds of blood in a day. At this time, common thought was that the blood was produced in the liver and not constantly recycled, mainly because they didn't have the means to observe capillaries.
He proposed that blood flowed through the heart in two separate closed loops. One loop, pulmonary circulation, connected the circulatory system to the lungs. The second loop, systemic circulation, causes blood to flow to the vital organs and body tissue. He also observed that blood in veins would move readily towards the heart, but veins would not allow flow in the opposite direction. This was observed by another simple experiment. Harvey tied a tight ligature onto the upper arm of a person. This would cut off bloodflow from the arteries and the veins. When this was done, the arm below the ligature was cool and pale, while above the ligature it was warm and swollen. The ligature was loosened slightly, which allowed blood from the arteries to come into the arm, since arteries are deeper in the flesh than the veins. When this was done, the opposite effect was seen in the lower arm. It was now warm and swollen. The veins were also more visible, since now they were full of blood. Harvey then noticed little bumps in the veins, which he realized were the valves of the veins, discovered by his teacher, Hieronymus Fabricius. Harvey tried to push blood in the vein down the arm, but to no avail. When he tried to push it up the arm, it moved quite easily. The same effect was seen in other veins of the body, except the veins in the neck. Those veins were different from the others - they did not allow blood to flow up, but only down. This led Harvey to believe that the veins allowed blood to flow to the heart, and the valves maintained the one way flow. Harvey further concluded that the heart acted like a pump that forced blood to move throughout the body instead of the prevailing theory of his day that blood flow was caused by a sucking action of the heart and liver. These important theories of Harvey represent two significant contributions to the understanding of the mechanisms of circulation.
William Harvey, after a painting by Cornelius Jansen
 Legacy and last years
Harvey's ideas were eventually accepted during his lifetime. His work was attacked, notably by Jean Riolan in Opuscula anatomica (1649) which forced Harvey to defend himself in Exercitatio anatomica de circulations sanguinis (also 1649) where he argued that Riolan's position was contrary to all observational evidence. Harvey was still regarded as an excellent doctor. He was personal physician to James I (1618-1625). After his and others' attempts to cure James of his fatal illness failed, he became a scapegoat for that failure amidst rumours of a Catholic plot to kill James, but was saved by the personal protection of Charles I (to whom he was also personal physician, from 1625 to 1647). He took advantage of these royal positions by dissecting deer from the royal parks and demonstrating the pumping of the heart on Viscount Montgomery's son, who had fallen from a horse when he was a boy, leaving a gap in his ribs, subsequently covered by a metal plate, which he was able to remove for Harvey. "I immediately saw a vast hole," Harvey wrote, and it was possible to feel and see the heart's beating through the scar tissue at the base of the hole.
His research notes were destroyed in riots in London at start of the English Civil War. He himself went with the king on campaign, and was in charge of the royal children's safety at the Battle of Edgehill, hiding them in a hedge. He was forced by enemy fire to shelter behind the Royalist lines, and at the end of the battle he tended to the dying and wounded.
Harvey also became the lecturer to the Royal College of Physicians (1615-56).
Harvey's work had little effect on general medical practice at the time — blood letting, based on the prevailing Galenic tradition, was a popular practice, and continued to be so even after Harvey's ideas were accepted. Harvey's work did much to encourage others to investigate the questions raised by his research. For example, Marcello Malpighi not only later proved that Harvey's ideas on anatomical structure were correct but developed a model of the capillary network. Harvey himself had been unable to distinguish the capillary network and so could only theorize on how the transfer of blood from artery to vein occurred.
In 1651 William Harvey donated money to Merton College for building and furnishing a library, which was dedicated in 1654. In 1656 he gave an endowment to pay a librarian and to present a yearly oration, which continues to the present day in his honour. Harvey died of a stroke in 1657 at the age of seventy-nine, and was buried in St Andrew's Church, Hempstead, a village to the east of Saffron Walden in Essex. He left money in his will for the founding of a boys' school in his native town of Folkestone; opened in 1674, the Harvey Grammar School has operated continuously up to the present day.
Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Arthur Schlesinger Jr. included William Harvey in a list of "The Ten Most Influential People of the Second Millennium" in the World Almanac & Book of Facts.
Derek Jarman (January 31, 1942 – February 19, 1994) was an English film director, stage designer, artist, and writer.
Jarman was born Michael Derek Elworthy Jarman in Northwood, Middlesex, boarded at Canford School in Dorset and from 1960 studied at King's College London. This was followed by four years at the Slade School of Art, University College London, starting in 1963. He had a studio at Butler's Wharf, London, and was part of the Andrew Logan social scene in the 1970s. Jarman's fame, however, mostly derived from his outspoken homosexuality, his never-ending public fight for gay rights, and his personal struggle with AIDS.
On December 22, 1986, he was diagnosed HIV positive, and was notable for later discussing his condition in public. His illness prompted him to move to Prospect Cottage, Dungeness in Kent, near to the nuclear power station. In 1994, he died of an AIDS-related illness in City of London, aged 52. He is buried in the graveyard at St. Clements Church, Old Romney, Kent.
Chumbawamba subsequently released Song for Derek Jarman in his honour. Andi Sexgang, another music artist released the CD Last of England as a tribute. The ambient experimental album The garden is full of metal, by Robin Rimbaud, includes Jarman speech samples.
Jarman's first films were experimental super 8 mm shorts, a form he never entirely abandoned, and later developed further in his films Imagining October (1984), The Angelic Conversation (1985), The Last of England (1987) and The Garden (1990) as a parallel to his narrative work.
Jarman first became known as a stage designer getting a break into the film industry as production designer for Ken Russell's The Devils (1970), and later made his debut in "overground" narrative filmmaking with the groundbreaking Sebastiane (1976), arguably the first British film to feature positive images of gay sexuality, and the first film entirely in Latin. Sebastiane is a story about the martyrdom of St. Sebastian, which created a stir on the art cinema market because of its overt depiction of homosexual desire. Its implications as camp were further enhanced by its dialogue being in Latin.
He followed this with the film many regard as his first masterpiece, Jubilee (shot 1977, released 1978), in which Queen Elizabeth I of England is transported forward in time to a desolate and brutal wasteland ruled by her twentieth century namesake. Jubilee was arguably the first UK punk movie, and among its cast featured punk groups and figures such as Wayne County of Wayne County & the Electric Chairs, Jordan, Toyah Willcox, and Adam and the Ants.
After making the unconventional Shakespeare adaptation The Tempest in 1979 (a film praised by several Shakespeare scholars, but dismissed by some traditionalist critics). There is copious nudity (mostly male, but also the distressingly unforgettable sight of Caliban's mother Sycorax breastfeeding her son), unconventional casting (Toyah Willcox's Miranda hardly suggests innocent purity) and setting (a crumbling mansion as opposed to an island), and an approach to the text that clearly regards it as a springboard rather than a sacrament.
During the 1980s Jarman was still one of the few openly gay public figures in Britain and so was a leading campaigner against "anti-gay" legislation and to raise awareness of AIDS. His major form of artistic practice in the early 1980s, perhaps most famously so in The Angelic Conversation (1985), a film in which the imagery is accompanied by a voice reciting Shakespeare's sonnets, obviously chosen for their openness to a homoerotic re-reading.
Jarman spent seven years making experimental super 8 mm films and attempting to raise money for Caravaggio (he later claimed to have rewritten the script seventeen times during this period). With the advent of Channel 4 funding in the mid-80s and the ensuing wave of internationally distributed low-budget British art cinema, Jarman was able to develop his status as a major European auteur.
Released in 1986, the film attracted a comparatively wide audience (and is still, barring the cult hit Jubilee, probably his most widely-known work), partly due to the involvement, for the first time, of the British television company Channel 4 in funding and distribution. Caravaggio was then funded by the BFI and produced by film theorist Colin MacCabe, became Jarman's most famous film. This marked the beginning of a new phase in Jarman's filmmaking career: from now on all his films would be partly funded by television companies, often receiving their most prominent exhibition in TV screenings. Caravaggio also saw Jarman work with actress Tilda Swinton for the first time. Here, his trademark aesthetics flourished: the overt depiction of homosexual love, the narrative ambiguity, the superb visuals, particularly the live representations of Caravaggio's most famous paintings.
The conclusion of Caravaggio also marked the beginning of a temporary abandonment of traditional narrative in Jarman's work. Frustrated by the formality of 35 mm film production, and the institutional dependence and resultant prolonged inactivity associated with it (which had already cost him seven years with Caravaggio, as well as derailing several long-term projects), Jarman returned to and expanded the super 8 mm-based form he had previously worked in on Imagining October and The Angelic Conversation.
The first film to result from this new semi-narrative phase, The Last of England told the death of a country, ravaged by its own internal decay and Thatcher's economic restructuring. "Wrenchingly beautiful…the film is one of the few commanding works of personal cinema in the late 80's -- a call to open our eyes to a world violated by greed and repression, to see what irrevocable damage has been wrought on city, countryside and soul, how our skies, our bodies, have turned poisonous," wrote The Village Voice. This film ingeniously re-interpreted Ford Madox Brown's famous painting of emigrants leaving the English shores for a life in the New World. The film has been compared to Humphrey Jennings's documentary Listen to Britain (1941) which constitutes its very antithesis. Where Listen to Britain indulges in the idyllic, The Last of England tries to expose the decay.
During the making of The Garden, Jarman became seriously ill. Although he recovered sufficiently to complete the film, he never attempted anything on a comparable scale afterwards, returning to a more pared-down form for his concluding narrative films, Edward II (perhaps his most politically outspoken work, informed by his Queer activism) and the Brechtian Wittgenstein, a delicate tragicomedy based on the life of the eponymous philosopher. It was a later complaint of Jarman's that with the disappearance of the Independent Film sector it had become impossible for him to get finance. Jarman made a side income by directing music videos for various artists including Marianne Faithfull, The Smiths and the Pet Shop Boys.
In 1989, Jarman's film War Requiem brought out of retirement legendary actor Laurence Olivier (who had announced his retirement in 1987). It turned out to be Olivier's last performance.
At the time when he made the film Blue, he was losing his sight and dying of AIDS-related complications. Blue consists of a single shot of saturated blue colour filling the screen, as background to a soundtrack composed by Simon Fisher Turner featuring original music by Coil and other artists, where Jarman describes his life and vision. When it was shown on British television, Channel 4 carried the image whilst the soundtrack was broadcast simultaneously on BBC Radio 3, a collaborative project unique for its time.
His final testament as a film-maker was the film Glitterbug made for the Arena slot on BBC Two, and broadcast shortly after Jarman's death. Compiled and edited from many hours of super 8 footage shot with friends and companions throughout his career it is a moving collage of memories, people and moments lost in time, accompanied by a specially commissioned soundtrack from Brian Eno.
Derek Jarman's garden, Prospect Cottage, Dungeness, taken in May 2007Jarman's work broke new ground in creating and expanding the fledgling form of 'the pop video' in England, and as a forthright and prominent gay rights activist. Several volumes of his diaries have been published.
Jarman also directed the 1989 tour by the UK duo Pet Shop Boys. By pop concert standards this was a highly theatrical event with costume and specially shot films accompanying the individual songs. Jarman was the stage director of Sylvano Bussotti's opera L'Ispirazione, first staged in Florence in 1998.
He is also remembered for his famous shingle cottage-garden, created in the latter years of his life, in the shadow of the Dungeness power station. The house was built in tarred timber. Raised wooden text on the side of the cottage is the first stanza and the last five lines of the last stanza of John Donne's poem, The Sun Rising. The cottage's beach garden was made using local materials and has been the subject of several books. At this time, Jarman also began painting again (see the book: Evil Queen: The Last Paintings, 1994).
Jarman was the author of several books including his autobiography Dancing Ledge, a collection of poetry A Finger in the Fishes Mouth, two volumes of diaries Modern Nature and Smiling In Slow Motion and two treatises on his work in film and art The Last of England (also published as Kicking the Pricks) and Chroma. Other notable published works include film scripts (Up in the Air, Blue, War Requiem, Caravaggio, Queer Edward II and Wittgenstein: The Terry Eagleton Script/The Derek Jarman Film), a study of his garden at Dungeness Derek Jarman's Garden, and At Your Own Risk, a defiant celebration of gay sexuality.
The Tempest (1979)
The Angelic Conversation (1985)
The Last of England (1988)
War Requiem (1989)
The Garden (1990)
Edward II (1991)
Electric Fairy (1971)
Studio Bankside (1971)
Garden of Luxor (1972)
Burning the Pyramids (1972)
Miss Gaby (1972)
A Journey to Avebury (1971)
Andrew Logan Kisses the Glitterati (1972)
Tarot (aka the Magician, 1972)
Stolen Apples for Karen Blixen (1973)
Miss World (1973)
The Devils at the Elgin (aka Reworking the Devils, 1974)
Fire Island (1974)
Duggie Fields (1974)
Ula's Fete (aka Ula's Chandelier, 1975)
Picnic at Ray's (1975)
Sebastian Wrap (1975)
Sloane Square: A Room of One's Own (1976)
Gerald's Film (1976)
Art and the Pose (1976)
Houston Texas (1976)
Jordan's Dance (1977)
Every Woman for Herself and All for Art (1977)
The Pantheon (1978)
In the Shadow of the Sun (1974) (in 1980 Throbbing Gristle was commissioned to provide a new soundtrack for this 54 minute film eponymous piece by Throbbing Gristle)
T.G.: Psychic Rally in Heaven (1981)
Jordan's Wedding (1981)
Pirate Tape (W.S. Burroughs Film) (1982)
Waiting for Waiting for Godot (1982)
Pontormo and Punks at Santa Croce (1982)
B2 Tape/Film (1983)
Imagining October (1984)
segment: Depuis le Jour
Glitterbug (1994) (one-hour compilation film of various Super-8 shorts with music by Brian Eno)
Jarman's early Super-8 mm work has been included on some of the DVD releases of his films.
The Sex Pistols: The Sex Pistols Number One (1976). Early live footage of the band.
Marianne Faithfull: "Broken English", "Witches' Song", and "The Ballad of Lucy Jordan" (all 1979)
Throbbing Gristle: TG Psychic Rally in Heaven (1981).
Language: "Touch The Radio Dance" (1984) (notable because it was shown at the Museum of Modern Art)
Orange Juice: "What Presence?!" (1984).
Marc Almond: "Tenderness Is a Weakness" (1984).
The Queen Is Dead, a short film incorporating the Smiths songs "The Queen Is Dead", "Panic", and "There Is a Light That Never Goes Out" (1986)
The "Panic" sequence from The Queen Is Dead was edited to form the video for that single (1986)
Matt Fretton: "Avatar" (1986)
Pet Shop Boys: "It's a Sin", "Rent", and "Projections".
The Last Paintings of Derek Jarman (Mark Jordan, Granada TV 1995). Broadcast by Granada TV and shown at the San Francisco Frameline Film Festival. Last footage shot of Derek producing his final works. Guests inc Margi Clarke. Toyah Wilcox. Brett Anderson. Frank Schofield. Jon Savage. To coincide with the broadcast the exhibition Evil Queen was premiered at the Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester. (Contact BFI for footage).
Derek (2008): a biography of the life and work of Jarman, directed by Isaac Julien, narrated by Tilda Swinton.
Red Duckies (2006): Short film directed by Luke Seomore & Joseph Bull, featuring a voice-over from Simon Fisher Turner commissioned by Dazed & Confused (magazine) for World Aids Day 2006. 
Delphinium: A Childhood Portrait of Derek Jarman (2009): a short film directed by Matthew Mishory depicting Jarman's "artistic, sexual, and political awakening in postwar England"[
Estelle Winwood (24 January 1883 – 20 June 1984) was an English stage and movie actress who moved to America in mid-career and became celebrated for her longevity.
Early life and career
Born Estelle Goodwin in Lee, Kent, she decided at the age of five that she wanted to be an actress. With her mother's support, but her father's disapproval, she trained with the Liverpool Repertory Company, before moving on to a career in London's West End.
She moved to the United States in 1916 and made her Broadway debut, and until the beginning of the 1930s she divided her time between New York and London. Throughout her career, her first love was the theatre and as the years passed she appeared less frequently in London, but became a prolific performer on Broadway. Her many successes include A Successful Calamity (1917), A Little Journey (1918), Spring Cleaning (1923), The Distaff Side (1934), The Importance of Being Earnest (which she also directed, 1939), When We Are Married (1939), Ladies in Retirement (1940), The Pirate (1942), Ten Little Indians (1944), Lady Windermere's Fan (1947) and The Madwoman of Chaillot (1948).
 A reluctant film and television actress
Like many stage actors of her era, she expressed a distaste for films and resisted the offers she received during the 1920s. Finally, she relented, and made her film début in 1931 in Night Angel but her scenes were cut before the film's release. Her official film début came in The House of Trent (1933) and Quality Street (1937) was her first role of note. She made no cinematic films during the 1940s but expressed a willingness to participate in the new medium of television, starring in a television production of Blithe Spirit[disambiguation needed] in 1946. During the 1950s she appeared more frequently in television that she did in film in such series as Robert Montgomery Presents, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, and The Donna Reed Show. Her few films from that period include The Glass Slipper (1955), The Swan (1956) and 23 Paces to Baker Street (1956).
Her other film credits include Darby O'Gill and the Little People (1959), The Misfits (1961), The Magic Sword (1962), The Notorious Landlady (1962), Dead Ringer (1964), Camelot (1967) and The Producers (1968). She later denigrated the last film, saying she could not imagine why she had done it except for the money; nonetheless it is now considered a comedy classic.
Her other work for television included guest roles in episodes of such series as The Twlight Zone; Dr. Kildare; Perry Mason; The Man from U.N.C.L.E.; The Name of the Game; Bewitched; Batman; Love, American Style; Cannon and Police Story.
Winwood's final film appearance was at age 93 in Murder by Death (1976), as Elsa Lanchester's character's ancient nursemaid, although in real life they were rivals who engaged in a vinegary exchange of insults. In this movie she joined other veteran actors spoofing some of the most popular detective characters in murder mysteries on film and television (e.g., Dick and Dora Charleston, Jessica Marbles, etc). When she made her final television appearance in a 1979 episode of the series Quincy, she officially became, at age 96, the oldest actor working in the U.S., beating out fellow British actress Ethel Griffies, who worked until her 90s. Winwood ultimately achieved an eighty-year career on the stage from her début at age 16 until her final appearance at age 100, playing Sir Rex Harrison's mother in his final My Fair Lady tour. When she died at age 101, she was the oldest member in the history of the Screen Actors Guild.
 Personal life
Winwood was married four times but had no children. One husband, Guthrie McClintic, was a gay man who had also been married to lesbian actress Katharine Cornell; another of her husbands was a brother of the Welsh Oscar-winning actor Edmund Gwenn (The Miracle on 34th Street).
She was very good friends with libertine actress and outsized personality Tallulah Bankhead until Bankhead's death in 1968. She, Bankhead, and actresses Eva Le Gallienne and Blyth Daly were dubbed "The Four Riders of the Algonquin" in the early silent film days, due to their appearances together at the "Algonquin Round Table".
She appears as a character in Answered Prayers, Truman Capote's final, unfinished thinly-veiled roman a clef. In the novel—which uses her real name—she attends a drunken dinner party with Tallulah Bankhead, Dorothy Parker, Montgomery Clift, and the novel's narrator, PB Jones.
On her 100th birthday, she was asked how it felt to have lived so long. Her response was, "How rude of you to remind me!" Bette Davis, an old co-star from 1964's "Dead Ringer", was photographed at Winwood's side on the occasion in Hollywood.
Estelle Winwood died in her sleep in Woodland Hills, California in 1984, aged 101. She was interred in the Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles.
Sydney Hughes Greenstreet (27 December 1879 – 18 January 1954) was an English actor, best known for his work with Humphrey Bogart and Peter Lorre in the 1940s.
Greenstreet was born in Sandwich, Kent, England, the son of a leather merchant, and had seven siblings. He left home at age 18 to make his fortune as a Ceylon tea planter, but drought forced him out of business and back to England. He managed a brewery and, to escape boredom, took acting lessons. His stage debut was as a murderer called Craigen in a 1902 production of a Sherlock Holmes entry by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle at the Marina Theatre in Ramsgate, Kent. He toured England with Ben Greet's Shakespearian company, and in 1905, he made his New York debut. Thereafter he appeared in such plays as a revival of As You Like It in 1916 with revered actress Margaret Anglin. Greenstreet appeared in numerous plays in England and America, working through most of the 1930s with Alfred Lunt and Lynn Fontanne at the Theatre Guild. Throughout his stage career, his parts ranged from musical comedy to Shakespeare, and years of such versatile acting on two continents led to many offers to appear in films. He refused until he was 62.
In 1941, Greenstreet began working for Warner Bros. His debut film role was also his most famous: Kasper Gutman ("The Fat Man") in The Maltese Falcon, which co-starred Peter Lorre as the twitchy Joel Cairo, a pairing that would prove profitable and long-lasting for Warner Bros. The duo appeared in nine films together, including Casablanca as crooked club owner Signor Ferrari (for which he received a salary of $3750 per week for seven weeks), as well as Background to Danger (1943, with George Raft), Passage to Marseille (1944, reteaming him with Casablanca stars Humphrey Bogart and Claude Rains), The Mask of Dimitrios (1944, receiving top billing), The Conspirators (1944, with Hedy Lamarr and Paul Henreid), Hollywood Canteen (1944), Three Strangers (1946, receiving top billing), and The Verdict (1946, with top billing). After a mere eight years, in 1949, Greenstreet's film career ended with Malaya, in which he was billed third, after Spencer Tracy and James Stewart. In those eight years, he worked with stars ranging from Clark Gable to Ava Gardner to Joan Crawford. Author Tennessee Williams wrote his one-act play The Last of My Solid Gold Watches with Greenstreet in mind, and dedicated it to him.
In 1950 and 1951, Greenstreet played Nero Wolfe on the NBC radio program The New Adventures of Nero Wolfe, based loosely on the rotund detective genius created by Rex Stout.
Greenstreet suffered from diabetes and Bright's disease, a kidney disorder. Five years after leaving films, Greenstreet died in 1954 due to complications from diabetes. He is interred at Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery, in Glendale, California in the Utility Columbarium area of the Great Mausoleum, inaccessible to the public. He was survived by his only child, John Ogden Greenstreet, born out of Sydney's marriage to Dorothy Marie Ogden. John Ogden Greenstreet died 4 March 2004 at age 74.
Sydney is the great-uncle of actor Mark Greenstreet.
As a tribute to Greenstreet, the crime boss Hector Lemans in the computer game Grim Fandango was based on him. Jim Ward voiced the character, and even copied Greenstreet's unmistakable evil laugh. An episode of Star Trek, The Next Generation called "The Big Goodbye" has holographic villain called Cyrus Redblock, played by Lawrence Tierney, an apparent play on Greenstreet's character Kasper Gutman (The Fat Man) in The Maltese Falcon
Greenstreet was partially the inspiration for the Jabba the Hutt character from Return of the Jedi (1983)
Robert Serber stated in his memoirs that as the "Fat Man" atomic bomb was round and fat, he named it after Greenstreet's character of "Kasper Gutman" in The Maltese Falcon.
It is also said that Marlon Brando, in A Dry White Season, imitated the speech patterns of Greenstreet.
Malaya (1949) .... The Dutchman
Flamingo Road (1949) .... Sheriff Titus Semple
The Woman in White (1948) .... Count Alessandro Fosco
Ruthless (1948) .... Buck Mansfield
The Velvet Touch (1948) .... Capt. Danbury
The Hucksters (1947) .... Evan Llewellyn Evans
That Way with Women (1947) .... James P. Alden
The Verdict (1946) .... Supt. George Edward Grodman
Devotion (1946) .... William Makepeace Thackeray
Three Strangers (1946) .... Jerome K. Arbutny
Christmas in Connecticut (1945) .... Alexander Yardley
Conflict (1945) .... Dr. Mark Hamilton
Pillow to Post (1945) .... Colonel Michael Otley
Hollywood Canteen (1944) .... Himself
The Conspirators (1944) .... Ricardo Quintanilla
The Mask of Dimitrios (1944) .... Mr. Peters
Between Two Worlds (1944) .... Reverend Tim Thompson
Passage to Marseille (1944) .... Major Duval
Background to Danger (1943) .... Colonel Robinson
Casablanca (1942) .... Signor Ferrari
Across the Pacific (1942) .... Dr. Lorenz
They Died with Their Boots On (1941) .... Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott
The Maltese Falcon (1941) .... Kasper Gutman
VIC REEVES - Now lives in Kent
BRIAN BLESSED - Now lives in Kent
JUNE BROWN - Now lives in Kent
LILY SAVAGE - Now lives in Kent
JOSEPH LISTER - Now lives in Kent
Born in Folkestone, England, he was selected by Chas Chandler to join Hendrix's band at its inception in 1966, and left in 1969. Although he appeared in other bands before and after Hendrix's death, he never achieved a similar level of success, and retired to Clonakilty, Ireland in 1972.
At nine, Redding played violin at school and then mandolin and guitar. His first public appearances were at the Hythe Youth Club then at Harvey Grammar School where he was a student.
His first local bands were:
The Strangers: with John "Andy" Andrews (bass)
The Lonely Ones: 1961 - John Andrews (bass) Bob Hiscocks (rhythm guitar); Mick Wibley (drums); Pete Kircher (vocals and in '62. drums). The Lonely Ones made (45 EP vinyl, private record) at the Hayton Manor Studio in Stanford, Kent, in 1963, with Derek Knight on vocals, Trevor Sutton on drums, Noel Redding on lead guitar and John Andrews on bass. First recordings: Some Other Guy; Money; Talking About You; Anna.
The Loving Kind: 1966 with Pete (Kircher) Carter (drums); Jim Leverton (bass); and Derek Knight (vocals).
At 17 Redding went professional and toured in Scotland and Germany, in the clubs with Neil Landon and the Burnettes formed in late 1962 and The Loving Kind formed in November 1965.
Redding was the first person to join the Jimi Hendrix Experience, and the first to leave. His final concert with them was in June 1969. With the band, he participated in recording the 3 landmark albums "Are You Experienced", "Axis: Bold as Love", and "Electric Ladyland", as well as performing in some of Hendrix's most celebrated concerts. His playing style was distinguished by the use of a pick, a mid-range "trebly" sound, and in later years the use of fuzz and distortion effects through overdriven Sunn amps.
In 1968, before leaving the Jimi Hendrix Experience Redding had formed the group Fat Mattress with another Kent musician Neil Landon (the former Burnettes-singer) (born Patrick Cahill, 27 July 1941, Kindford, Sussex) on vocals, Jim Leverton (born James Leverton, in 1946, in Dover, Kent) and Eric Dillon, the drummer, (born in 1950, in Swindon). Later, Martin Barre played for a short time before he joined Jethro Tull. The band produced two albums before breaking up shortly after the release of the second in 1970.
One more effort by Hendrix manager, Michael Jeffery was attempted to reunite the Jimi Hendrix Experience months after the Woodstock event. This basically consisted of an interview with Hendrix, Redding and Mitchell by Rolling Stone magazine. No shows or recordings resulted. He soon left the Jimi Hendrix Experience for the last time and went on to other projects.
While living in Los Angeles. Noel joined Road , a heavy metal three-piece, with Rod Richards (born Rod Cox (ex Rare Earth) on guitar, and Les Sampson on drums. They released one album, Road (1972).
Noel moved to Ireland in 1972. He formed The Noel Redding Band with Eric Bell from Thin Lizzy, Dave Clarke, Les Sampson, and Robbie Walsh. They did two albums for RCA, three tours of the Netherlands, two tours of England, one tour of Ireland and a 10-week tour in America. The band dissolved after a dispute with their management company. Tracks recorded for a third, unreleased album were later released as The Missing Album  on Mouse Records 
In his book Are You Experienced? (co-authored with Carol Appleby) he spoke openly about his disappointment in his being cut off from the profits of the continued sale of the Hendrix recordings. He was forced to sign away his royalties in 1974, and later had to sell the bass guitar he used during that time. Redding had received £100,000 as a one-off payment after he had been told that there would be no more releases of Jimi Hendrix Experience material but this had been before the advent of CDs and DVDs which sold millions of copies. Right up until his death, Redding had been planning legal action against the Hendrix estate for payment estimated at £3.26 million for his part in Hendrix' recording and for ongoing royalties.
Redding was married to a Danish school-teacher Susanne Redding, and has a son, Nicolas Noel Redding (DJ NiS) (who inherited a settlement of 800,000 euro, which equals a minor part of the fortune).
Noel Redding recorded and toured sporadically through the years, occasionally doing session work on other artists' albums including recording for Thin Lizzy and Traffic. He performed with the rock band Phish in 1993. He also formed Shut Up Frank  with Dave Clarke, Mick Avory of The Kinks and Dave Rowberry of The Animals. They toured extensively and recorded several albums, which are still available on Mouse Records .
Redding was found dead in his home in Clonakilty, County Cork, Republic of Ireland on May 11, 2003. A post mortem was carried out on 13 May at Cork University Hospital in Wilton, Cork. The report concluded that Redding died from "Shock haemorrhage due to oesophageal varices in reaction to cirrhosis of the liver." He was 57 years old. In the village of Ardfield, local people have erected a plaque to his memory.
A compilation CD and record entitled The Experience Sessions was released by Experience Hendrix, LLC in 2004. Along with the released tracks ("She's So Fine" and "Little Miss Strange") the collection contains rare and unreleased Redding-penned songs recorded by The Jimi Hendrix Experience. Most of the tracks are outtakes from Axis: Bold As Love and Electric Ladyland, and feature Redding predominantly on guitar (with Hendrix on bass). It also features a live version of Hendrix's "Red House" with Redding on rhythm guitar.
The Loving Kind
"Accidental Love"/"Nothing Can Change This Love" (Piccadilly 7N 35299) 1966.
"I Love The Things You Do"/"Treat Me Nice" (Piccadilly 7N 35318) 1966.
"Ain't That Peculiar"/"With Rhyme And Reason" (Piccadilly 7N 35342) 1966.
The Jimi Hendrix Experience
Are You Experienced (1967) Polydor.
Axis: Bold as Love (1967) Polydor.
Electric Ladyland (1968) Polydor.
Smash Hits (1968) Polydor.
Radio One (1989) Castle Communications.
BBC Sessions (1998) MCA.
The Experience Sessions (2004) Image Entertainment.
Fat Mattress (1969) Polydor.
Fat Mattress II (1970) Polydor.
"Naturally"/"Iridescent Butterfly" (Polydor 56352) 1969.
"Magic Lanterns"/"Bright New Way" (Polydor 56367) 1970.
"Highway"/"Black Sheep Of The Family" (Polydor 2058 053) 1970.
Road (1972) Natural Resources (a division of Motown); not to be confused with another band named The Road that had 2 lps on Kama Sutra
Noel Redding Band (AKA The Clonakilty Cowboys)
Clonakilty Cowboys (1975) RCA.
Blowin (1976) RCA.
"Roller Coaster Kids"/"Snowstorm" ( RCA 2662).
"Take It Easy"/"Back On The Road Again" (RCA PB 9026).
Lord Sutch and Heavy Friends
Lord Sutch and Heavy Friends (1970) Atlantic.
Turner was know to regularly visit Margate, as well as other parts of Kent such as Dover, so much so, there is a composition in which the artist has incorporated recognisable features at Dover, about 1849, with imaginary narrative. The painting falls into two parts with a brig shown on the left amidst dark clouds and a stormy sea. It is flying the red ensign upside down to indicate that it is in distress. A boat is being launched from the beach to go to its assistance. On the right preparatory stages for the construction of a pier are underway. The artist has carefully delineated the various processes involved at the building site such as a hoist, ladders and blocks of stone together with several manual workers in red caps at the site. They do not appear to be aware of the ship in trouble at sea and this reinforces the appearance of two distinct narratives. Only the man, woman and child in the middle distance look directly at the ship from the raised quay.
The view is taken from the position of the modern Admiralty Pier, with the sea on the left. Shakespeare's Cliff rises to dominate the skyline in the distance with the two tunnels of the London-Dover railway visible at its base, following the arrival of the South- Eastern Railway via Folkestone in 1844. On the right is the Pilot's Watchtower, which was constructed in 1847 and demolished by 1910. This structure was used to house the pilots who were able to keep a continuous look-out for passing vessels in need of their services to guide them safely into port. In 1846 there had been a recommendation that Dover become a harbour of refuge 'capable of receiving any class of vessels under all circumstances of the wind and tide'. The following year, probably the year of the preliminary sketches for this painting, work began on the western arm of the harbour commissioned by the Admiralty. The painting can be seen as a glorification of industrial progress, and Dover as the place at which England advances towards the continent of Europe, yet equally defines its own boundary. The white cliffs bear a symbolic and historical significance making Dover a locus of identity for the sovereignty of the nation. However the inclusion of the contrived scene on the left invites a less confident reading.
After Turner, Stanfield was considered the greatest British marine painter of his day. He started his working life at sea, but his talent for sketching attracted attention and from 1816 to 1834 he rose to become the leading theatrical scene painter of his day. At the same time his growing success as an easel painter of marine and coastal views built him a success which enabled him to give up the stage and from 1835 he became an Academician of powerful influence. The painting is signed 'C Stanfield RA 1862' bottom left and was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1863.
(Warner Bros 1990)
In this remarkable adaptation of William Shakespeare's famous play, Mel Gibson is impressive as Hamlet, the Danish prince who swears to his father's ghost that he will wreak revenge for the man's murder by taking the life of Claudius, who is now married to Hamlet's mother, Gertrude. Hamlet becomes torn between avenging his father's death and his reluctance to spill blood.
Many of the scenes were filmed at Dover Castle, which was given a huge Hollywood make-over for its role in the movie.