Roman Terms: 50BC - 410 AD


Caster: Fort; Camp; Later town

Cester: Fort; Camp; Later town

Chester: Fort; Camp; Later town

Fos (s): Ditch

Port: Harbour; Gate

Street: Paved way




Celtic Terms: 800BC - 400 AD


Aber: River mouth or ford

Afon: River

Allt: Hillside

Avon; Esk; Eye; Dee: River

Bedd: Grave

Bre-; Drum; Don: Hill

Caer: Fortress

Capel: Chapel

Carnedd: Cairn

Castell: Castle

Coed: Wood

Cwm: Valley

Dinas: City

Glan: River Bank

Hamps: Dry stream in Summer

Llan: Church

Llyn: Lake

Mawr: Big

Môr: Sea

Mynydd: Mountain

Pant: Hollow

Pen; Bryn: Hill; Head

Plas: Palace

Pont; Bont: Bridge

Porth: Harbour

Tre: Hamlet; Village; Town

Treath: Beach

Ynys: Island




Saxon Terms: 350AD - 1000AD


Bourne: Stream

Burn: Stream

Burg: Large village

Croft: Small enclosure

Cot: Small hut

Delph: Ditch, dyke or stream

Den(n): Pig pasture

Eg; Ey; Ea; Eig: Island

Fall: Area cleared of trees

Fen: Fen

Field: Field

Ham: Village

Hurst: Clearing

Ing: People

Lake: Lake

Ley; Lea: Clearing

Mere: Pool

Moor: Moor

Moss: Swamp

Riding; Rod: Cleared land

Stead: place

Stoc: Summer pasture

Stoke: 'Daughter' settlement

Stow: Holy Place

Ton; Tun: House; Farm

Weald; Wold; High Woodland

Wic; Wike: Farm; Group of huts

Wood: Wood

Worth: Fenced land

Worthy: Enclosed land




Viking Terms: 750AD - 1100AD


Akr: Acre

Beck: Stream

Booth: Summer pasture

By: Farm; Village

Ey: Island

Fell; How: Hill or mound

Fiord: Fiord

Fiskr: Fish

Gardr: Yard; landing place

Garth: Enclosure

Gate: Road

Geit: Goat

Gill: Ravine or valley

Holm(r): Island

Hus: House

Ings: Marsh; meadow

Kald: Cold

Kelda: Spring, stream

Kirk: Church

Laithe: Barn

Lin: Flax

Lund: Grove

Melr: Sandbank

Orme: Serpent

Pollr: Pool

Skar: Cleft

Sker: Rock

Slack: Stream in a valley

Stakkr: Rock in the sea

Stan: Stone

Stokkr: Sound

Tarn: Lake

Thorp: Daughter settlement

Thwaite: Forest clearing; meadow

Toft: Homestead

Wath: Ford

Wray: Remote place